Antalya is the most recently established city of Pamphylia. In 190 BC, the Romans won the battle of Magnesia—a battle between the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom and Rome and its ally Pergamon. The Roman commander Manlius Vulso and the King of Pergamon Eumenes II came at that time to the area to discuss the terms of surrender of the cities in the region. The main aim of the victors was to occupy the most prized Mediterranean port city of Side. When Attalos II of Pergamon became king in 159 BC, he decided to establish a new port city to take the place of Side. The present location of Antalya was chosen for its abundant water sources and because its harbour was shielded from winds and did not silt up. The city was named Attaleia after its founder, King Attalos II of Pergamon. The port city of Attaleia was soon enclosed by city walls and started to develop rapidly.
All of the buildings built immediately after its establishment lay within the city walls. In successive periods, the city grew beyond the city walls and many authentic buildings dating to the Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods still exist and are in regular use.